Medical Radiology and Radiation Safety. 2012. Vol. 57. No. 5. P. 72-82


L.M. Rozhdestvensky

Radiation Countermeasures (Protection and Therapy): Modern Statement, Problems and Prospectives

Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of FMBA, Moscow, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


In Russia radiobiological invesigations there are 2 actual directions of studying pharmacological radiation countermeasures according to real radiation accident scenarios. The first one is effectiveness increasing the severe radiation injury therapy. Another one is searching a radioprotector of prolonged action that would capable to protect against the prolonged radiation exposure of low radiation rate.

On the first direction there is a real possibility to increase effectiveness of the world consensus treatment protocol regarding severe human radiation injuries by means of the home preparation betaleukine usage as a means of the urgent therapy. In experiments on dogs it has been shown that a single s/c betaleukine injection in limits 2 h after lethal radiation exposure is as effective as the G-CSF 3 week course.

At the same time there is a crisis concerning progress in solving such problems as an elaboration of a radioprotector against prolonged low dose rate exposure, a revealing an indicator/ marker of the pharmacologically increased radioresistance (dissolving the problem of the clinical trial 2nd phase realization regarding radioprotectors), the radioprotectors broad usage in a praxis of radiochemotherapy.

Western countries excel now Russia in elaborating new approaches and new preparations in radiation countermeasures, especially in mastering recombinant cytokines and their combinations.

Prospectives in overcoming crisis regarding radiation countermeasures investigations lie in the expansion of genomics and proteomics studies, in knowing intracellular signaling pathways regarding as ionizing radiation as radiation countermeasures action. It is necessary also to modify the radiation countermeasures studying in a way of cell and genomic tests use besides the survival test.

Key words: radiation countermeasures, radioprotectors, antiradiation therapy means, prolonged action radioprotectors, radiation injury scenarios, elevated radioresistance indicators