Medical Radiology and Radiation Safety. 2022. Vol. 67. № 6


E.E. Aladova, E.K. Vasilenko , A.V. Efimov,   V.V. Vostrotin,  M.E. Sokolnikov,  S.A. Romanov

Methodology for Rationing Internal Exposure from Plutonium: Problems and Solutions

Southern Urals Biophysics Institute, Ozersk, Russia

Contact person: E.E. Aladova, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Dedicated to E.K. Vasilenko memory

From the authors

During the last years of his life, Evgeny Konstantinovich Vasilenko worked on the most important regulatory and methodological documents on the organization and conduct of dosimetric control of internal exposure due to plutonium intake for the professional workers. He paid a special role to developing an approach to rationing the effects of plutonium compounds based on lifetime excess risk assessments. Under his leadership, several publications were published on the problem of limiting occupational exposure from the long-lived radionuclides. The presented article was prepared with the direct participation of Evgeny Konstantinovich, and it continues the series of publications he started on this problem.

We remember with gratitude Evgeny Konstantinovich Vasilenko as a wonderful scientist, creative professional and multi-talented person.



Purpose: The presented materials are devoted to the development of a methodology for rationing the impact of plutonium intake by the amount of annual excess risk, which should not exceed 1 ×10-3. It is shown that the existing approach to the rationing of plutonium by the expected effective dose does not reflect the actual levels of personnel exposure and, therefore, does not provide the necessary level of radiation safety at plutonium processing plants. 

Results: Using data from epidemiological surveillance of a cohort of employees of the Mayak software, an assessment of the excessive relative risk per unit dose of radiation exposure for each of the plutonium-239 deposition organs was performed in order to describe the dependence of mortality from lung, liver and skeletal cancer on the dose of alpha radiation of plutonium-239. Equivalent doses to plutonium deposit organs and the annual excess risk generated by these doses for various plutonium intake scenarios are calculated based on the results of monitoring the activity of plutonium in urine. When calculating the annual effective dose based on the results of monitoring the annual equivalent dose, it is necessary to take into account the dependence of the weighing coefficients for the plutonium deposit bodies on the age of the employee at which the exposure occurred, and when assessing the magnitude of the radiation risk, the dependence of the risk coefficient on age.

Conclusion: The use of the annual excess risk value as a controlled and normalized indicator for the individual dosimetry control of internal radiation from the plutonium intake is the most correct. The proposed approach to rationing can be used for acute and chronic inhalation intake of plutonium, as well as for the intake of plutonium through damaged skin.

Keywords: internal exposure, plutonium, lifetime risk, dose limit, deposit organs, radiation monitoring, expected effective dose

For citation: Aladova EE, Vasilenko EK, Efimov AV, Vostrotin VV, Sokolnikov ME, Romanov SA. Methodology for Rationing Internal Exposure from Plutonium: Problems and Solutions. Medical Radiology and Radiation Safety. 2022;67(6):36–43. (In Russian).DOI:10.33266/1024-6177-2022-67-6-36-43



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Conflict of interest. The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Financing. The work was carried out within the framework of state contract No. 11.306.22.2 «Solving of the relevant issues of internal dosimetry for personnel and population» (code «Radiometry-22»), funded by the FMBA of Russia.

Contribution. Article was prepared with equal participation of the authors.

Article received: 20.07.2022. Accepted for publication: 25.09.2022.