Medical Radiology and Radiation Safety. 2019. Vol. 64. No. 1. P. 53–57


DOI: 10.12737/article_5c55fb4d218e20.76419134

A.V. Belousov1, M.V. Zheltonozhskaya1,2, E.N. Lykova1,2, P.D. Remisov1, A.P. Chernyaev1,2, V.N. Iatsenko3

Research of 131Cs Radionuclide Production for Brachytherapy with Photonuclear Method

1. Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ;
2. D.V. Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia;
3. A.I. Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center, Moscow, Russia

A.V. Belousov – Assoc. Prof., PhD Phys.-Math.;
M.V. Zheltonozhskaya – Senior Researcher, Leading Engineer, PhD Tech.;
E.N. Lykova – Senior Lecturer, Leading Engineer; P.D. Remisov – Past-Graduate Student;
A.P. Chernyaev – Head of Dep., Head of Lab., Dr. Sci. Phys.-Math., Prof.;
V.N. Iatsenko – Head of Lab., PhD Tech.


Purpose: Currently a brachytherapy method with 125I received widespread acceptance in the treatment of prostate cancer. However, since 2003, 131Cs radio-implants have been approved for clinical use in the treatment of this type of cancer. To investigate alternative 131Cs receiving channels using electron accelerators and to evaluate the effectiveness of this method for its use in brachytherapy.

Material and methods: To study alternative channels for the 131Cs production using electron accelerators and to evaluate the efficiency of this method, we irradiated the natural cesium target (0.35 g) on a pulsed microtron with an electron energy of 55 MeV, an average amperage of 40–45 nA during 80 min.

Results: The 131Cs activity in the irradiated sample was 12.2 ± 1.0 μCi at the end of irradiation.

Conclusion: In brachytherapy, 10 to 60 micro-sources are usually used to treat a patient. The activity of one therapeutic micro source is 131Cs of the order of 10–3 Ci. Thus, the development of the required amount becomes possible when using electron accelerators with currents of the order of 50 mA. In the future it is also necessary to investigate 131Cs in the electron energy range 30–45 MeV for choosing the optimal irradiation regime.

Key words: medical physics, brachytherapy, activation, electron accelerators, photonuclear reactions, 131Cs


  1. Kehwar TS, Jones HA, Huq MS, Smith RP. Changes in radiobiological parameters in 131Cs permanent prostate implants. J Radiother Practice. 2013;12:66-79.
  2. Glaser SM, Benoit RM, Smith RP, Beriwal S. Long-term quality of life in prostate cancer patients treated with cesium-131. Brachytherapy. 2016. 15:48.
  3. Knaup C, Mavroidis P, Esquivel C, et al. Radiobiological comparison of single and dual-isotope prostate seed implants. J Radiother Practice. 2013.12:154-62.
  4. Yondorf MZ, Parashar B, Sabbas A, et al Radiation exposure after neurosurgical resection and permanent intraoperative cesium-131 radio-isotope brachytherapy in patients with brain tumors. Brachytherapy. 2014.13:109-10.
  5. Zlokazov S, Swanberg DJ, Egorov O, et al. Method for large scale production of cesium-131 with low cesium-132 content. United States Patent Application Publication. 2012 Jun.7.
  6. Tárkányi F, Hermanne A, Takács S, Rebeles RA, Van den Winkel P, Király B, Ditrói F, Ignatyuk AV. Cross section measurements of the 131Xe(p,n) reaction for production of the therapeutic radionuclide 131Cs. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 2009. 67(10):1751-7.
  7. Brown GN, Swanberg DJ, Bray LA. Method of separation and purification of cesium-131 from barium carbonate: Pat.: 9820, Eurasian Patent Organization 28.04.2008. (Russian).

For citation: Belousov AV, Zheltonozhskaya MV, Lykova EN, Remisov PD, Chernyaev AP, Iatsenko VN. Research of 131Cs Radionuclide Production for Brachytherapy with Photonuclear Method. Medical Radiology and Radiation Safety. 2019;64(1):53-7. (Russian).

DOI: 10.12737/article_5c55fb4d218e20.76419134

PDF (RUS) Full-text article (in Russian)